Chase and Simon’s research compared memory of chess masters and beginners for the posi-tion of game pieces on sample chess boards. They found that the chess master remembered positions better when the arrangement of the pieces was consistent with a real game but not when the pieces were randomly placed. The significance of this finding was that
a. experts show larger primacy and recency effects than beginners.
b. knowledge in an area of expertise increases a person’s digit span.
c. expertise with some material reduces susceptibility to proactive interference with that materi-al.
d. chunking requires knowledge of familiar patterns or concepts.
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