China Russia The Middle East
The Song dynasty was formed after the fall the Tang dynasty. It was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, later known as Emperor Taizu, with the support of military commanders. The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms periods. The Song dynasty was divided into two distinct periods: Northern (960-1127) and Southern (1127-1279). During the Northern period, the Song were unable to contain attacks from nomadic tribes in the north. This led to the split of the Song dynasty and the emergence of the Southern Song dynasty. The dynasty also had several political and religious clashes with the emergence of neo-Confucianism, which reversed the popularity of Buddhism and went against imperial authority. These political fractions weakened the empire and made it difficult to withstand the Mongol invasion.
The Kievan Rus state emerged in the ninth century and consisted of a loose group of diverse peoples, including Finnic and Baltic peoples, along with Viking traders. There was also a diversity of religions, which included Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. This small region was initially governed by a number of principalities under Vladimir the Great, and the kingdom began to prosper. Vladimir continued to expand the empire and unite Slavic states. He also converted to Greek Orthodoxy, which strengthened his ties with the Byzantine Empire while helping unify the diverse peoples of his region. However, this decision isolated the region from both the Islamic Empire and the Roman Catholic west. After Vladimir the Great, Yaroslav the Wise emerged as the next great leader of Kievan Rus. He continued to establish trade relations and maintained peace by having his sons and daughters marry neighboring leaders. After Yaroslav’s death, his sons fought for power and weakened the kingdom, which was unable to defend against the Mongol invasion.
At the height of the Islamic empire, the Abbasid caliphate ruled over the Middle East, western Asia, and Northern Africa. The Abbasid caliph initially ruled over a prosperous Islamic civilization, but political unity fractured as power was regionalized into a series of sultanates ruled by Persian and Turkish military dynasties.
The Abbasid caliphate was broken into two periods. The first period lasted from 750 to 1250. The second period began after the Mongol invasion destroyed the capital city of Baghdad. It lasted from 1261 to 1571. Although the Abbasid caliphate no longer had political control over the Islamic empire, they did exert religious power until the Ottoman conquest in 1517.
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The post China Russia The Middle East The Song dynasty was formed after the fall the Tang dynasty. It was founded by Zhao Kuangyin, later known as Emperor Taizu, with the support of military commanders. The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms periods. appeared first on Superb Professors.