Chapter 11: Self and Social UnderstandingQUESTION 11. Six-month-old Amy looks and smiles more at videos of others than at videos of herself, which indicates that Amy does not sense that she is distinct from her surroundings. views other people as potential social partners. has not yet developed self-awareness. recognizes the others as caregivers.5 points QUESTION 21. Securely attached toddlers show greater knowledge of their own physical features than insecurely attached toddlers. show less knowledge of their parents physical features than insecurely attached toddlers. display less complex self-related actions during play than insecurely attached toddlers. are unable to label their own body parts.5 points QUESTION 31. Jenny, a toddler, watches another toddler, Alberto, push buttons on a musical toy. Jenny takes the toy she is holding and begins to push buttons on it. Alberto watches Jenny and then pushes his toy s buttons and looks up to see if Jenny is watching. Jenny shows interest in Alberto s activities, but she also appears confused about why he is imitating her. becomes angry that he is copying her actions. wants to be better at the activity than he is. realizes that he is interested in her activities.5 points QUESTION 41. In one study, storytelling by Chinese families in Taiwan differed from storytelling by Irish-American families in that Chinese parents used storytelling to guide the child toward socially responsible behavior. Irish-American parents focused more on children s misdeeds. Irish-American parents were more likely to discuss family excursions and holidays. Chinese parents used storytelling as a means of teaching self-esteem.5 points QUESTION 51. False-belief understanding develops earlier in boys than girls. is associated with early reading ability. is fully developed by age 5 or 6. interferes with children s eyewitness memory.5 points QUESTION 61. Mindy, a preschooler, is able to perform well on false-belief and other theory-of-mind tasks, which indicates that Mindy s mother probably describes Mindy in terms of mental characteristics. uses an authoritarian child-rearing style. gives her explicit training on such tasks. rarely uses such terms as want, like, and think.5 points QUESTION 71. By age _____, children begin to describe themselves in terms of typical emotions and attitudes. 3Â½ 5 7Â½ 105 points QUESTION 81. Based on Darius s inability to establish joint attention with his parents and point to objects he is interested in, as well as his ________, Darius has been diagnosed with autism. excessive empathy incredibly large vocabulary insistence on playing with an imaginary friend abnormally large amygdala as indicated by MRI5 points QUESTION 91. Mario describes himself as prone to mistakes, but hard-working and ethical. Mario is probably a(n) teenager. emerging adult. preschooler. school-age child.5 points QUESTION 101. Sasha is a seventh grader who laughs at her friends jokes even when she does not think they are funny. She believes her friends will like her more because of this. Sasha has developed mind-mindedness. egocentrism. social comparison skills. perspective-taking skills.5 points QUESTION 111. ________ ranks among the most important aspects of self-development. Self-esteem Theory of mind Close friendship Development of a generalized other5 points QUESTION 121. Self-esteem originates early and drastically fluctuates in adolescence, particularly in boys. peaks in adolescence. its structure becomes increasingly elaborate with age. rarely fluctuates across childhood and adolescence.5 points QUESTION 131. Self-esteem in the early school years is usually much higher than in the preschool years. peaks as children engage in social comparisons. is especially low in boys. adjusts to a realistic level as children engage in social comparison.5 points QUESTION 141. Which of the following children is likely to have the highest self-esteem? Victor, who is African American Alexander, who is Caucasian Tao, who is Chinese Shay, who is Japanese5 points QUESTION 151. Among preschoolers, children who give up easily when faced with a challenge are considered learning optimists. tend to underestimate task difficulty while rating their own abilities very high. typically have a history of parental criticism and control. base their self-esteem entirely on inner standards.5 points QUESTION 161. Learned-helpless children fail to connect their effort with success because they focus on mastery of a goal. learning goals. performance goals. outcomes.5 points QUESTION 171. Compared with American parents, Asian parents are more likely to attribute achievement to effort. ability. genetics. luck.5 points QUESTION 181. Attribution retraining is most effective for children when it consists of well-intended messages from adults that attribute children s success to chance. success is linked to ability rather than to effort. begun early, before children s views of themselves become hard to change. accompanied by public celebration of performance goals.5 points QUESTION 191. When asked which college she was considering, Laila responded, I have looked at several schools, but I do not think it makes much difference which one I choose. Laila is demonstrating characteristics of identity foreclosure. moratorium. achievement. diffusion.5 points QUESTION 201. One reason suicide increases in adolescence seems to be an inability to overcome an identity crisis. a drastic rise in mental illness. teenagers improved ability to plan ahead. the availability of firearms.5 points QUESTION 211. Minority teenagers who have experienced discrimination are likely to show a determination to exceed expectations of their cultural group. develop a positive ethnic identity. have low ethnic pride. explore their ethnic identity to gain a better understanding of it.5 points QUESTION 221. Before age 8, children s descriptions of others focus on personality traits. commonly experienced emotions and attitudes. physical traits. inner dispositions.5 points QUESTION 231. By age ____, white children generally evaluate their own racial group more favorably than other racial groups. 3 to 4 5 to 6 7 to 8 9 to 105 points QUESTION 241. Which of the following statements regarding school integration in the United States is true? Most schools offer classes designed to counter racial and ethnic biases. Most students attend schools where the majority of students are of their own race. About 70 percent of Native American children attend segregated schools on reservations. African Americans are the most racially isolated group.5 points QUESTION 251. Seven-year-old Chiara has become more adept at persuading her friends to play house instead of getting angry and telling them they must play house, largely because of gains in her perspective-taking capacity. she is afraid to ask adults to help her. her friends will not play if she yells at them. her friends are tired of her yelling at them.
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