In our last discussion, weâ€re going to change it up a bit. There is no initial opinion question, but rather a library scavenger hunt for trending technology that impacts health care finance and budgeting. Below are the specific instructions. This last discussion needs to begin no later than Wednesday.
Instructions to Learners
This final discussion is based on what you have learned in your research and readings during this course. Use the library to research two articles and make your initial post no later than Wednesday.
In an initial post share two (2) articles from the Excelsior library discussing a new trend of interest to you (such as smartphone apps, iPads or other mobile technology, robotics, nanotechnology, automated care, telemedicine, etc.) that influences some aspect of health care finance (revenues, expenses, billing, coding, etc.). Be sure to provide the full citation and permanent link, so your classmates and instructor can also check it out. Where appropriate, please feel free to include related websites in addition to the article. Librarians can help you locate the articleâ€s permanent link.
Provide a brief synopsis in your own words, including why you chose this trend and what its implications are for health care finance at the organizational and patient level. You might even ask your classmates questions concerning the technologyâ€s impacts on finance!
As you respond to your classmatesâ€ posts on their technologies, share other implications that you may see and/or experiences you may have had with that particular technology.
Please be sure to justify your responses with your readings, as well as your experiences where appropriate. Remember, you are scheduling your professional staff and NOT patients. Remember that an active discussion is the key to an interesting and engaging online course, so start early. Please do not attach any files to the discussion threads.
Consult the Discussion Posting Guide for information about writing your discussion posts. It is recommended that you write your post in a document first. Check your work and correct any spelling or grammatical errors. When you are ready to make your initial post, click on “Reply.” Then copy/paste the text into the message field, and click â€œPost Reply.â€
To respond to a peer, click â€œReplyâ€ beneath her or his post and continue as with an initial post.
This discussion will be graded using a rubric. Please review this rubric prior to beginning the discussion. You can view the rubric on the Course Rubrics page within the Start Here module. All discussions combined are worth 25% of your final course grade.
ARTICLE 1 “MOBILE TECHNOLOGY”
please cite this!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
The dark side of consumer life in the age of virtual and mobile technology.
Zolfagharian, Mohammadali1 (AUTHOR) firstname.lastname@example.orgYazdanparast, Atefeh2 (AUTHOR)
Journal of Marketing Management. Nov2017, Vol. 33 Issue 15/16, p1304-1335. 32p.
*Consumer surveys*Attitudes toward technology*Mobile communication systemsConsumer behavior researchHuman-machine relationshipWell-being
Consumer misbehaviourdark sidemobiletechnologyvirtual
517210 Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Satellite)
This study extends the nascent stream of research that investigates the contributions of mobile and virtual technology to consumer misbehaviour and dark side of consumer life. Using a qualitative approach, the present research explores the nature of consumer-technology relationship, specifically virtual andmobile technology, at the level of lived experience. The findings reflect eight important facets of technologyrelated dark-side consumer behaviour that, in one way or another, cause harm to the individual user, other consumers or society at large. These themes showcase human entrapment in mobile and virtual technology. The findings have significant implications for marketing managers as well as consumer well-being. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
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1Department of Marketing, Robert C. Vackar College of Business & Entrepreneurship, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, USA2Schroeder School of Business Administration, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN, USA
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The dark side of consumer life in the age of virtual and mobile technology.
This study extends the nascent stream of research that investigates the contributions of mobile and virtual technology to consumer misbehaviour and dark side of consumer life. Using a qualitative approach, the present research explores the nature of consumerâ€“technology relationship, specifically virtual and mobile technology, at the level of lived experience. The findings reflect eight important facets of technology-related dark-side consumer behaviour that, in one way or another, cause harm to the individual user, other consumers or society at large. These themes showcase human entrapment in mobile and virtual technology. The findings have significant implications for marketing managers as well as consumer well-being.
Keywords: Consumer misbehaviour; dark side; technology; virtual; mobile
The digital era, a time in which information in its many forms is ready, available, accessible and immediately sharable as digital media, has presented a situation in which consumers are immersed in a vast and complex array of networks (Aron, [ 5]; Verhoef et al., ). The development and implementation of digital technologies (e.g. mobile, cloud and wearable technologies) have significantly influenced the structure of individuals’ personal, social and professional lives (Holland & Bardoel, ; Rennecker & Godwin, ). These technologies are incorporated into the everyday practices of individuals and could consequently bring profound social and behavioural changes and even result in new lifestyles (Garcia-Montes, Caballero-Munoz, & Perez-Alzarez, ). In fact, the widespread and comprehensive use of smartphones, tablets and more recently smart watches, among other digital devices, raises questions about the possible consequences for users (connected consumers) and society.
Researchers and practitioners have started to notice that the use of such technologies can be a double-edged sword (Turel, Soror, & Steelman, ). On one hand, they provide benefits to individuals, organisations and societies. Much research has been devoted to the positive aspects of technologies such as the impact of mobile/virtual technology on improving consumers’ lives with the convenience of access to information, the ability to link people and places regardless of time and geographic limitations, increased productivity and performance, and flexibility and freedom of choice (Beard, [ 8]; Jarvenpaa & Lang, ; Turel et al., ).
On the other hand, digital technologies can create adverse and even unexpected consequences for individuals, organisations and society. Only recently concerns over the impact of technology and its use on consumers and their lives have resulted in systematic research on possible negative aspects and consequences of technology use, a field of research referred to as the dark side of technology use (Rosen, Whaling, Rab, Carrier, & Cheever, ; Turel et al., ). This focus has presented a new and arguably unprecedented context to study consumer misbehaviour as related to digital technologies due to the fact that such technologies are no longer just tools for individuals, but have become an integral part of their everyday lives. As B.J. Fogg, director of Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab, argues, ‘the more influence that technology devices exert over our behaviour, the less control we have over ourselves’ (Leslie, , p. 70). This is in line with Hodder’s () assertions that once individuals are invested in products, they become trapped in maintaining those investments and the benefits that they produce.
Smartphones, for instance, have become necessities (Braun, Zolfagharian, & Belk, ; Lee, Chang, Lin, & Cheng, ; Samaha & Hawi, ). Some may even argue that the use of smartphones is a primary aspect of maintaining their productive lifestyles, managing social interactions and achieving professional success (Lundquist, Lefebvre, & Garramone, ). The latest data from Pew Research Center shows that 46% of smartphone owners believe that they cannot live without their smartphone (Smith, ). Mobile apps account for a significant portion of smartphone usage as well. A 2015 study by Nielsen showed that mobile apps account for 89% of consumers’ media time including social network, email and news apps (Chaffey, ). Research in 2012 revealed that, on average, consumers checked their phones 34 times a day not necessarily because they needed to, but because it had become a habit (Oulasvirta, Rattenbury, Ma, & Raita, ). This number has now increased to an average of 150 times a day (Leslie, ), indicating an increasing dependency on mobile technologies.
Some researchers have emphasised the downsides of digital technology, especially those of excessive and addictive technology use. Extant research, for instance, has recognised psychological damages of compulsive internet and smartphone use and even smartphone addiction such as depression, sleep disorder, declined academic performance and stress (Chesley, ; Lee et al., ; Samaha & Hawi, ). Other researchers have raised concerns over the negative impacts of online/virtual communications on the development of meaningful and quality social and individual relationships and satisfaction with life (Blais, Craig, Pepler, & Connolly, ; Kerkhof, Finkenauer, & Muusses, ; Samaha & Hawi, ), considering the fact that inelasticity of time results in less time spent with family and friends if more time is spent online (Nie & Erbring, ).
The present research builds on extant research on dark side of technology use but takes a slightly different approach by drawing from Hodder’s argument that humans and things are relationally produced and that these relationships present a dark side as humans get entrapped in their relations with, and or dependencies on, things (). While the majority of consumer misbehaviour research has focused on how consumer misbehaviour could be damaging to marketers, technology-related consumer misbehaviour could focus on technology-related actions of consumers that have the potential to negatively impact them and/or other consumers. In fact, consumers fall victims to the availability of mobile/virtual, wearable and cloud technologies; their desire and use of these technologies; and the consequent entrapments (Hodder, 2004). In other words, technology users become victims of their own and/or possibly other consumers’ consumption habits and dependencies, giving rise to situations in which the offender and the victim of the misbehaviour are not easily separable from one another.
Thus, it is the objective of the present research to explore how the constant interactions of consumers with their mobile devices impact their individual and group behaviours, as well as the sociocultural norms and values of the modern society to provide a better understanding of the overall impact of these interactions on our lives. More specifically, this research is an attempt to shed more light on the dark side of consumer behaviour as related to technology use by focusing on human entrapment in digital technology as a result of technologyâ€“human relationships. Such a focus is scarce in consumer misbehaviour research, as the research has traditionally had a micro-orientation focusing on specific types of misbehaviour (see Fullerton & Punj,  for similar discussions). The findings contribute to the extant research on consumer misbehaviour by providing insights into the under-researched area of technology-related consumer misbehaviour and identification of the various aspects of the harm caused to consumers who, arguably, are victims of their own misbehaviour.
During the past decade, academics and practitioners have started to pay increasing attention to the concept of consumer misbehaviour (e.g. Akbari, Abdolvand, & Ghaffari, [ 1]; Daunt & Greer, ; Grove, Pickett, Jones, & Dorsch, ). This topic has attracted researchers from various disciplines (Fisk et al., ) including social psychology (e.g. focusing on unethical decision-making), organisational behaviour (e.g. focusing on employee fraud), services (e.g. focusing on failed service encounters) and criminology (e.g. taxation fraud).
Consumer misbehaviour can result in material psychological damages to marketers and consumers and eventually impact the experience of all consumers (Fullerton & Punj, ). Due to its high economic impact, consumer misbehaviour has been an attractive topic for marketing researchers. In marketing, destructive consumer behaviours that violate consumption norms (Daunt & Greer, ) have been referred to using multiple labels including aberrant (Fullerton & Punj, ), Jay (Harris & Reynolds, ), deviant (Amine & Gicquel, [ 2]; Moschis & Cox, ) and dysfunctional behaviour (Harris, ; Harris & Reynolds, ). Consumer brand sabotage, consumer vigilantism and Pinocchio customer behaviour have also been identified as aspects of dysfunctional consumer behaviour (Aron, [ 5]). Specifically, dysfunctional consumer behaviour is defined as thoughtless or abusive actions that cause problems for the firm, employees and other consumers (Lovelock, ). Similarly, consumer misbehaviour signifies undesirable acts of consumers, and deviant/aberrant customer behaviour refers to the violation of social norms in consumption situations (Fullerton & Punj, ).
The research on consumer misbehaviour could be grouped into three areas. First, the majority of extant research investigates why consumers engage in misbehaviours by examining motivating factors and traits associated with such wrongdoings to distinguish aberrant consumers from others (e.g. Akbari et al., [ 1]; Daunt & Harris, ; Dootson, Johnston, Beatson, & Lings, ; Egan & Taylor, ; Lee et al., ). These studies have focused on demographic, psychological and situational factors (such as age, gender and social class) impacting consumer misbehaviour. Extant research has identified several motives for consumer misbehaviour including absence of moral constraints, thrill-seeking, unfulfilled aspirations and negative attitudes towards exchange institution (Fullerton & Punj, ). For example, Dootson et al. () explored consumers’ perceptions of right and wrong behaviour and their deviance threshold to draw the line between rights and wrongs to better understand why consumers engage in deviant behaviours in the marketplace. Akbari et al. ([ 1]) proposed a model of antecedents of consumer misbehaviour in retail stores by focusing on individual variables (e.g. self-esteem), environmental variables (e.g. retail lay out and atmospherics) and situational variables (e.g. perceived risk). Situationally derived opportunity has been identified as a key driver of consumer misbehaviour in extant research (Fullerton & Punj, ). Situational opportunism is supported by Routine Activity Theory (Cohen & Felson, ), suggesting that consumers do not typically misbehave because they are inherently bad; rather, they arrive at a point in which an opportunity to misbehave presents itself (Daunt & Greer, ).
Second, research on consumer misbehaviour has focused on developing typologies of dysfunctional consumers or their behaviours. Such studies have focused on specific contexts such as retail (e.g. Akbari et al., [ 1]; Lovelock, , ) and hospitality (Harris & Reynolds, ) and offered typologies of misbehaviours. For example, Harris and Reynolds () identified eight types of deviant customers in the hospitality context including compensation letter writers, undesirable customers, property abusers, service workers, vindictive customers, oral abusers, physical abusers and sexual predators. Following a more general classification, Fowler () categorised consumer behaviour by whether it meets or violates cultural expectations and institutional norms. Similarly, Bitner, Booms, and Mohr () developed a typology of four deviant customer behaviours, namely drunkenness, verbal and physical abuse, breaking company policies and lack of cooperation. A recent categorisation developed by Greer () includes goods-related misbehaviour, interpersonal misbehaviour and relational misbehaviour as related to under-participation and over-participation of customers in service settings.
Finally, the third approach to studying dysfunctional consumer behaviour has focused on the consequences of such behaviours. Harris and Reynolds (), for instance, developed a model that identifies three major consequences of dysfunctional consumer behaviour, namely consequences for employees interacting with the consumer (e.g. psychological, emotional and physical effects), as well as consequences for customers (i.e. domino effects and spoils consumption) and organisations (i.e. financial costs). Following a different approach, Fullerton and Punj () studied the macro effects of consumer misbehaviour as related to the ideology of consumption and consumption experience and argued that consumer misbehaviour has the potential to do as much harm to consumers as do marketers’ misbehaviours.
Overall, consumer misbehaviour exists in various formats including misbehaviours directed at marketer employees (e.g. verbal abuse of employees), marketer merchandise (e.g. shoplifting), marketer’s financial assets (e.g. warranty fraud), marketers’ physical or electronic premises (e.g. vandalism) and other consumers (e.g. jumping queues) (Fullerton & Punj, ). Another important but under-researched area of consumer misbehaviour is those directed at the consumer himself or herself. Extant research on drug and alcohol addiction, compulsive shopping and gambling tend to view such consumers as victims of their own misbehaviours (e.g. Faber, Christenson, de Zwaan, & Mitchell, ; Hirschman, ). Notwithstanding these insights, the victimisation effects of technology-related misbehaviour have yet to be understood by consumer researchers.
TECHNOLOGY AND CONSUMER MISBEHAVIOUR
Compared to the large body of research dedicated to the positive aspects of digital technology use, research on the complex and at times alarming ways in which digital technology affects individuals and organisations and the social life seems sparse (Tarafdar, Gupta, & Turel, ). The juxtaposition of these two literatures brings to mind extreme viewpoints or responses to the effects of technology, namely the utopian or optimistic (focusing on the positive aspects of digital technology) and the dystopian or pessimistic views (focusing on the negative aspect of digital technology; Fisher & Wright, ; Winner, ).
The utopian view has received support from modernisation theory, arguing that all societies move through stages of growth and development associated with technological sophistication and its integration with social life of individuals, the outcome of which is material prosperity and advanced lifestyles (Winner, ). To the optimists, there are technological solutions to social problems such as the enabling effects of information technology whereby inexpensive and convenient telecommunication overcomes geographic and social limitations (Fisher & Wright, ).
The dystopian view, however, draws on theories of technological society and focuses on human and environmental costs of rapid technological development (Winner, ). This view claims that technology fragments society and isolates people, resulting in loss of strong bonds among consumers (Fisher & Wright, ). To pessimists, benefits of access to information and online community are outbid by the decline in habits of sociability. For instance, individuals stay in touch in the virtual world while avoiding direct contact with each other in the public world. Winner () warns: ‘we can stay in our rooms, stare at flat screens, surf the Internet, and be satisfied with simulacra of human contact’ (p. 1010).
Fisher and Wright () proposed a framework for understanding these extreme responses to technology. Drawing from the theory of cultural lag by William Ogburn (), they argued that the effects of technology will be understood with a lag (i.e. the effects will not be apparent to social actors for some time after the technology is introduced to a society). As such, the optimistic or pessimistic views about the recent forms of digital technology are ideologically charged views that are filled with the hopes and fears of their advocates. Katz and Rice () also argued that both the utopian and dystopian views are too extreme and neither can accurately describe the individualâ€“technology relationship phenomenon. In fact, the individualâ€“technology relationships are much more complicated than the one-way focus of utopian and dystopian views.
The study of consumer misbehaviour with respect to technology has been pursued in two major loci. Psychology, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and medical literatures have generally followed a micro approach and focused on the psychological and physiological impacts of technology use on users (e.g. Rosen, Cheever, & Carrier, ; Rosen et al., ). This is accompanied by a macro approach that aims at understanding the broader sociocultural impacts and the paradoxes of technology in modern life (e.g. Jarvenpaa & Lang, ; Mick & Fournier, ).
Extant research with the micro perspective has examined consequences of instant messaging in the workplace (Cameron & Webster, ), compulsive internet use (e.g. Kerkhof et al., ), internet addiction (e.g. Young, ), smartphone addiction and compulsive use of social media such as Facebook (Rosen et al., ). For instance, the use of social networking site (SNS) mobile applications is found to be a significant contributor to mobile phone addiction (Salehan & Negahban, ). According to the theory of optimal flow (Csikszentmihalyi, ), the enjoyable experience of using information and communication technologies (e.g. mobile devices) for some individuals could result in their interest in maintaining that state even at high costs, ultimately falling in addiction traps (Salehan & Negahban, ). Excessive smartphone usage leads to preoccupation with the device; increasing amount of phone use; failure to control or stop phone use; restlessness when the use is reduced; endangering relationships, educational and job opportunities due to the use of phone; and using the phone as a way to regulate mood and feelings of guilt, anxiety and depression (Lee et al., ). Such excessive and habitual checking on missed calls or messages has been linked to mobile phone addiction (Bianchi & Phillips, [ 9]; Oulasvirta et al., ), causing sleep disorder, depression and psychological distress (Chesley, ).
More recent studies have found that compulsive behaviour under smartphone context shares similarities with other forms of compulsive behaviour such as drug and alcohol addiction and credit card abuse (Lee et al., ). Smartphone addiction has been found to have a direct and negative impact on academic performance and a negative and indirect impact on satisfaction with life via increased perceived stress (Samaha & Hawi, ). Moreover, invasive mobile use has been associated with health-related risky behaviours like smok
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