provide definitions for key terms you must provide definitions in your own words copy and paste will be penalized

1- Accessorial service:
Transportation service that is supplemental to line-haul transportation.
2- Barge :
Flatboard boat used to transport heavy products.
3-Broker :
A company that helps both shipper and carrier achieve lower freight rates and more efficient utilization of carrier equipment. Brokers also help match carriers to loads.
4- Common carrier :
Transportation carrier that has agreed to serve the general public and assumes four legal obligations: service, delivery, reasonable rates, and avoidance of discrimination.
5- Consignee :
The receiver of a shipment.
6- Contract carrier :
A contract carrier provides specialized service to each customer based on a contractual arrangement.
7- Department of Transportation (DOT) :
U.S. federal government body with primary responsibility for transportation safety regulation.
.8- Exempt carrier :
For-hire carriers that have been exempted from economic regulation through provisions in various pieces of legislation.
9- Freight forwarder :
Consolidates freight shipments and buys transportation services in volume rates.
10- Intermodal transportation :
Using a container that can be transferred from the vehicle of one mode to a vehicle of another, and with the movement covered under a single bill of lading.
11- Land bridge services:
Refers to a combination of water transportation and surface transportation between an origin and destination port.
12- Less-than-truckload (LTL):
carrier Shipments that range from about 150 to 10,000 pounds; they are often too big to handle manually, yet they do not fill an entire truck.
13- Line-haul:
Terminal-to-terminal movement of freight or passengers.
14- Lock :
Raises or lowers barges so that they can meet the riverâ€s level as they move upstream or downstream.
15- Parcel carriers :
Companies that specialize in transporting parcels.
.16- Piggyback transportation :
Truck trailers on flatcars, also referred to as TOFC.
17- Private carrier :
Companies whose primary business is other than transportation provide their own transportation service by operating truck, railcars, barges, ships, or airplanes.
18- Rail gauge :
The distance between the inner sides of two parallel rail tracks.
19- Shippers†associations:
Nonprofit membership cooperatives that perform basically the same function as freight forwarders.
20- Slurry systems :
Transport products that are ground into a powder, mixed with water, and then shipped in slurry form through a pipeline.
21- Surface Transportation Board (STB):
A U.S. government agency with primary responsibility for regulating railroad pricing and service.
23- Ton miles :
The number of tons times the number of miles.
24- Truckload (TL) carrier :
A motor carrier that focuses on shipments of greater than 10,000 pounds.
25- Unit load devices (ULD)
An alternative name for airfreight containers.
1- Amodal shipper :
A transportation manager who purchases a prespecified level of transportation service and is indifferent to the mode(s) or carrier(s) used to provide the actual transportation service.
2- Bill of lading :
The most important single transportation document that is the basic operating document in the industry.
. 3- Class rate system:
A system that simplifies each of the three primary rate factors—product, weight, and distance.
.4- Commodity rate:
A specific rate for every possible combination of product, weight, and distance.
5- Concealed loss or damage:
Loss or damage that is not apparent until after a shipment has been unpacked and inspected.
6- Demurrage :
A charge assessed by rail carriers to users that fail to unload and return vehicles or containers promptly.
7- Density :
A measure of how heavy a product is in relation to its size.
8- Detention :
A payment from a shipper or consignee to a truck carrier for having kept the carrierâ€s equipment too long.
9- Documentation :
The documents associated with transportation shipments.
10- Expediting :
The need to rapidly move a shipment to its final destination.
11- FOB destination :
A transportation term that signifies that the seller retains title and control of a shipment until it is delivered.
12- FOB origin:
A transportation term that signifies that the buyer assumes title and control of a shipment at the point of pickup.
13- Freight bill :
An invoice submitted by a transportation carrier requesting to be paid.
14- Freight claims:
A document that notifies a transportation carrier of wrong or defective deliveries, delay, or other delivery shortcoming.
15- Rate :
The price charged for freight transportation.
.16- Routing :
The process of determining how a shipment will be moved between origin and destination.
17- Routing guide :
Provides guidance in terms of a preferred list of carriers for shipments moving between two points.
18- Stowability
Refers to how easy a commodity is to pack into a load.
19- Tracking :
A carrierâ€s attempt to determine a shipmentâ€s location during the course of its move.
20- Transportation management system (TMS):
A software package that automates the process of building orders, tending loads, and tracking shipments, audits, and payments.
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