1.) Ronnie says race is skin color. Bobby says race is not real scientifically, so since it doesnâ€t exist, letâ€s stop talking about it. (a) Provide at least 2 examples of how race is socially constructed from your course readings/materials in your own words to show Bobby and Ronnie what race really is and is not. (b) What is correct & incorrect in each of Ronnie and Bobbyâ€s statements (be specific)? (c) According to social science, what is the consequence when we â€œstop talking about raceâ€â€”is it a good way to reduce racism? Why or why not?
2.) Mary feels we live in a post-racial society where anyone can be anything. The only people she sees bringing up race are people of color and she canâ€t understand why they just canâ€t get over it and see how the world is open to them. Is it true that racism does not affect white people unless they are bigots? Are people of color the only ones still thinking racially? Please provide some solid evidence in your own words from your course readings/materials about how racism still impacts society. What does the evidence (be specificâ€”not just â€œracism still existsâ€) tell us about who is and is not racist, how many people are and are not racist (or prejudiced) today? (Hint: it might be helpful to distinguish between prejudice & racism, as well as between active & passive racism, in your answer.)
3.) Racial ideology today is often transmitted through colorblind discourse. Bonilla-Silva identifies 4 frames, 4 storylines, and 4 rhetorical strategies/semantic moves of colorblind racism. Create a fictitious conversation between â€œJackâ€ and â€œJillâ€ as they discuss a TV show they have just finished watching depicting a black single mother trying to keep her kid from a life of crime. Remember, Jack and Jill arenâ€t blatant racists and see themselves as open-minded. Make sure Jack and Jill use at least 1 frame, 1 storyline, and 1 rhetorical/semantic move each, and identify it when they do with parentheses. Do not plagiarize any examples from readings, make up your own.
The 3 questions need to be 250-400 words each.
An extra tidbit that the professor wrote in the module
Four central frames of Color-Blind Racism:
Minimization of racism
Abstract Liberalism most important as a foundational base for â€˜new racismâ€â€¦ must understand â€˜liberalismâ€
Tenants of liberalism
Melorialism (idea that people and institutions can be improved)
Often set in a Eurocentric framework of humanity (only Europeans are human)â€¦modernity, liberalism, and racial exclusion developed togetherâ€¦however, liberalism has also been responsible for social change and reform (can be progressive)
The four frames: Used in combination rather than a single frame
â€œ..abstract liberalism involves using ideas associated with political liberalism (e.g. â€œequal opportunityâ€, the idea that force should not be used to achieve social policy) and economic liberalism (e.g. choice, individualism) in an abstract manner to explain racial mattersâ€
â€œlaissez-faire racismâ€ or â€œcompetitive racismâ€ â€¦. use in arguments against Affirmative action
Often used as an argument against assistance (welfare)
Relies on Jeffersonian idea â€œthe cream rises to the topâ€ or meritocracy (reward by merit)
Liberalism suggests little or no government interference (invisible hand of the market) â€¦balance or equilibrium is usually the outcome
Individualismâ€¦should not look at groups but individualsâ€¦individuals have a right to choose their attitudes and behaviors
â€œNaturalization is a frame that allows whites to explain away racial phenomena by suggesting they are natural occurrencesâ€
Least used frame (tends to remind one of biological explanations)
Uses â€˜naturalâ€ explanationsâ€¦likes attract likes
Very few natural occurrences in society
We are generally socialized into our behaviors
â€œCultural racism is a frame that relies on culturally based arguments such as â€œMexicans do not put much emphasis on educationâ€ or â€œblacks have too many babiesâ€ to explain the standing of minorities in society.â€
Tend to use cultural explanations for racial differences
Assumes culture is a fixed rather than fluid concept
Example â€œculture of povertyâ€ used for the underclass
Often used in conjunction with minimization
â€œJust the way people areâ€ explanationâ€¦part of their cultural traits i.e. laziness, frugality
Sometimes harsh/direct criticism, other times compassionate/gentle approach
â€œMinimization of racism is a frame that suggests discrimination is no longer a central factor affecting minoritiesâ€ life chances (â€œItâ€s better now than in the pastâ€ or â€œThere is discrimination, but there are plenty of jobs out thereâ€)
William Julius Wilson The Declining Significance of Race (1978) suggest class standing more important than race
Discrimination not seen as a problem even though it may occur
Belief that institutional racism has declined
Race is minimized and seen only as an excuse
These frames are often used in combination to explain that minorities are no longer subjected to the racism of the past and that racism is no longer an issue in American society
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