Social Conflict Theory in Sociology: Definition & Contributors
Social conflict theory sees social life as a competition and focuses on the distribution of resources, power, and inequality. Let’s take a look at a few of the key aspects of this perspective and test our knowledge with a quiz.
Definition of Social Conflict
Social conflict theory is a macro-oriented paradigm in sociology that views society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social change. Key elements in this perspective are that society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority, and factors such as race, sex, class, and age are linked to social inequality. To a social conflict theorist, it is all about dominant group versus minority group relations. Karl Marx is considered the ‘father’ of social conflict theory. Let’s examine this perspective deeper and take a look at a few key definitions.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) was a German philosopher, sociologist, economist, and revolutionary socialist. Marx offered a theory of capitalism based on his idea that human beings are basically productive – in order to survive, people have to work. He also believed that people have two relationships to the means of production: you either own the productive property or you work for someone who does.
The clash between the owners and the workers is at the heart of Marx’s thinking. In an industrial, wealthy, society, how can so many people be poor? At the heart of Marx’s thinking is social conflict, which is the struggle between groups in society over scarce resources. Marx’s primary concern, however, was class conflict, which arises from the way society produces material goods.
Karl Marx lived in the early stages of industrial capitalism in Europe. Marx believed the owners of these industries were the capitalists, those people who own and operate businesses in pursuit of profits. The system of capitalism turns most people in any society into proletariats, those people who sell their labor for wages. To Marx, such a system will inevitably lead to class conflict between the capitalists and proletariats.
Marx further believed that capitalism would lead to feelings of alienation for the workers. Alienation is the experience of isolation and misery that results from feelings of powerlessness. The only way to avoid this is to reorganize society. He imagined a system of economic production that could provide the needs of all members of society. In his view, socialism was the answer to the failings of a capitalist system.
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